[Title Page] [List of Genera] Comparison of Drawings] [Regional Keys to Genera] [Descriptions of New Taxa] [Geographical Distribution] [Color Photographs] [Scanning Microphotographs] See also Catalogue of Salticidae [ Title page] List of Genera - names beginning with: A BC DEFG HIJKL MN OPQ RS TUVWXYZ References: Authors beginning with: A BC DEFG HIJKL MN OPQ RS TUVWXYZ Key for ticidae of C Europe ][Key for Salticidae of Levant][Simon's 1899-1902 Keys to the Salticid Groups]

Salticidae: Diagnostic Drawings Library

by Jerzy Proszynski 1997


Historic Keys to the Salticid Groups
by Simon's 1899-1902  
  translated with an introduction and indices   by H. D. Cameron (1) and D. P. Wijesinghe (2)
from PECKHAMIA: Volume 3 Number 1 - Publication of the Peckham Society,
 an informal organization dedicated to research on the biology of jumping spiders 
 Adapted to computer HTML, with minor changes by J. Proszynski, 1999.
by kind permission of Mr D. P. Wijesinghe and the Editor  of Peckhamia Dr. G. B. Edwards

See also: 
A pictorial guide to the Salticidae of Latin America
INTRODUCTION  
The monumental Histoire Naturelle des Araignees, published in Paris from 1897 to 1901 by Eugene Simon, still remains the only encyclopedic treatment of the spider genera of the world. In this day and age, the fact that the keys and the descriptions are in Latin is an increasingly serious inconvenience. It is hoped that a translation of Simon's keys to the Groupes of the large and systematically difficult family of jumping spiders, the Salticidae, will be a welcome aid to the increasing numbers of workers in that family. While many, though not all, of Simon's groups are admittedly artificial, they still represent the only available general scheme for identification and access to the literature. The features that Simon used in his keys, such as the relative position of the posterior median eyes, the shape of the ocular quadrangle, the curvature of the line of the anterior eyes, the relative lengths of the third and fourth legs, the presence and position of the thoracic groove, and the spination of the legs, to mention a few, still serve for identification and classification. And Simon's groups are useful starting points for revisions. But, on the other hand there is reason for caution and circumspection in using Simon's keys.
In his classification of salticids, Simon appears to have relied solely on somatic (non-genitalic) features. In addition, he seems to have considered general similarities and special similarities equally valid for constructing a classification - his approach to classification was essentially phenetic. Most subsequent attempts at grouping salticids (up to the 1970's) involved simple modifications of Simon's scheme, rather than original proposals. For example, Petrunkevitch (1928) used Simon's descriptions of higher taxa and/or keys to construct his classification of salticids into 23 subfamilies. Some of these subfamilies are identical to the corresponding group of Simon; others were formed by uniting two or more of Simon's groups, based on the data in Simon's work. Roewer (1954) combined the two systems to produce a spuriously more resolved classification; the only novelty was the recognition of two major subgroups of salticids, the lyssomanids and salticids proper.
The importance of Proszynski's (1976) study lies in its attempt at grouping Holarctic (and some other) salticid genera solely on genitalic features. This study emphasized the point that salticid groups based on special genitalic features show little concordance with Simon's groups. Most modern students of salticids weight genitalic features higher than non-genitalic features and tend to regard the lack of concordance between the two arrangements as indicative of paraphyly in Simon's classification or widespread homoplasy (convergence) in salticid somatic features. The reliance on genitalic features in modern salticid systematics is exemplified by such currently recognized taxa as 'euophryines', 'dendryphantines', etc., which are defined exclusively on genitalic features and are drastically different in composition from the groups which go under these names in Simon's or Petrunkevitch's schemes.
Given this background, the question may be asked of what possible interest could Simon's classification be to the modern student. This is best answered by the following quotation from a recent revisionary paper: "In practice, the majority of salticid subfamilies have not been properly defined, or diagnosed, and have undergone little or no change since they were first proposed by Simon (1901-03). Simon, however, possessed an extensive knowledge of the Salticidae and discussed the characters of his groups in detail. Consequently his smaller groups often include related genera which form a useful basis for revisionary studies" (Wanless 1988:81). Simon's keys to the groups recognized, by him, form a convenient summary of his classification but are relatively inaccessible to modern students since they are in Latin. The only comparable English key is that of Petrunkevitch (1928) but, due to the merging of some of Simon's groups to form subfamilies, that key is less informative than the original keys of Simon. An English translation of Simon's original keys would, therefore, appear to be a desideratum.
As indicated above, there are several problems involved in using Simon's classification and keys today. As is well known, by basing his primary division of salticids on the retromarginal cheliceral dentition, Simon separated taxa (genera) which, on the basis of other characters, appear to be closely related. Among the numerous examples in the literature, the case of Bathippus (Unidentati: Plexippeae) and Canama (Fissidentati: Cytaeae) is a good illustrative example. It may be mentioned in passing that, though the cheliceral dentition as used by Simon may not be informative, more specific patterns of dentition (promarginal as well as retromarginal) do appear to diagnose monophyletic groups. Conversely, many of Simon's groups (especially larger ones) contain unrelated taxa (genera): e.g. Dendryphanteae, Plexippeae. At the generic and specific level, a frequent problem is that Simon often misidentified the type species of genera, so that his concept of a particular genus was quite different from what it should have been, and thus generic names such as Telamonia and Viciria apply today to quite different groups of species than Simon used them for. In using Simon's keys today, therefore, it is important that one be aware of these problems and pitfalls. If one uses the group keys without continuing with the generic keys one will end up with collections of specimens sorted to artificial groups; without a generic identification these specimens will be almost as 'inaccessible' as an unsorted collection. This applies mostly to the large groups, as obviously with smaller groups, the group identification becomes more useful. The usefulness of Simon's keys to his groups today is that they serve as a summary (though no doubt vastly incomplete) of the distribution of non-genitalic characters within the Salticidae, and this information, used in conjunction with genitalic feature (e.g. published figures), may serve to indicate potentially monophyletic groups that could form the basis for revisionary and phylogenetic studies.

   References  
Petrunkevitch, A. 1928. Systema aranearum. Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts & Sci. 29: 1-270 [esp. 56-61, 181-207).
Roewer, C.F. 1954. Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940, bzw. 1954. 2 Band, Abt. B, Bruxelles: Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique.
Simon, E. 189?-1903. Histoire naturelle des araignees. 2 vol. Paris.
Wanless, F.R. 1988. A revision of the spider group Astieae (Araneae: Salticidae) in the Australian region. New Zeal. J. Zool. 15: 81-172.
   How to Use this Key  
It must be emphasized that this translation is meant to be no more than a convenience to provide easier access to the information in Simon's great work, and does not represent a modern classification of the salticids. Simon's sequential numbering of groups has been retained, but only as an aid to finding the appropriate discussion, and is without any phylogenetic significance.
The key leads to the group, e.g. BOETHEAE, which is further designated by the sequential number which Simon gave it, and followed by the page number of Simon's second volume, where the group is treated. Simon's numbering became confused, and some groups, e.g. MAEVIEAE, will have a true sequence number in square brackets [63a] with Simon's incorrect number 59 following.
Simon's Histoire ..., long out of print and rare, is available in a xerographic copy, somewhat reduced from the original size, from: Demand Reprints, University Microfilms, P.O. Box 1467 Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106; Telephone number: (313) 761-4700 ext. 492 The listing is: Simon, Eugene Louis. Histoire naturelle des araignees. Paris. Librairie Encyclopedique de Roret,1892-1897. 2192 p. Vol.11092 pp $160 (soft cover), $172 (hard cover); vol. 2. 1100 pp. $160 (soft cover); $172 (hard cover). Plus state tax and shipping costs. order no.: OP 36152
   Notes on Frequently Used Terms  
Simon uses eye positions as important key characters. He often specifies whether the anterior eye row is procurved, recurved or straight. This refers to the line tangent to the upper margins of the four anterior eyes. This line is recurved, if the ends of the arc are higher than the middle. It will be procurved if the ends are lower than the middle. The ocular quadrangle is the trapezoid or rectangle formed by the four points of the anterior lateral and the posterior lateral eyes, viewed from above the cephalothorax. Whether this quadrangle is wider in front or behind, or has parallel sides is a feature frequently used in Simon's keys.
Simon divided the Salticidae artificially into three Sections for convenience of identification, the Salticidae Pluridentati, the Salticidae Unidentati, and the Salticidae Fissidentati, based on the character of the teeth on the inferior margin of the chelicerae, which he regarded as reliably constant (Simon 2: 383). While this division is for the most part useful and reliable as a practical scheme of identification, it is artificial and separates otherwise closely related genera.
The key proper is followed by a catalogue of the genera in each group as Simon understood them. The authors of the genera are given, as is conventional, although, as we noted above, Simon's concept of a genus may rest upon a misidentification of the type species, and be at odds with the concept of the original author.
 KEY TO GROUPS of Salticidae
A. Inferior margin of the chelicerae armed with a row of several isolated teeth. . . .SALTICIDAE PLURIDENTATI p.4
B. Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a single pointed tooth or none. .    . . ......SALTICIDAE UNIDENTATI p.7
C. Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a compressed tooth or carina divided by a notch, or rarely either truncate 
or serrate... .SALTICIDAE  FISSIDENTATI p.10   . . . . . . . . .
 
SALTICIDAE PLURIDENTATI (388-390) 
1.Anterior lateral eyes located behind the medians (forming a second eye row). The patellae      usually with a medio-apical 
     spine or seta . 1. LYSSOMANEAE 390 (cf Lyssomanes ] [Lyssomanes, Pandisus, Macopaeus, Asemonea, 
Chinoscopus,Onomastus, Orthrus]-      
- Anterior lateral eyes located near the medians on each side. Patellae without a medio-apical spine  2
2 (1). Eyes of the second row large, hardly 1/3 smaller than the anterior laterals, slightly prominent, and locatedmore or less inside them ............................................................................................3
-- Eyes of the second row very minute (except Holcolaetis), sessile, not situated inside the anterior laterals (or only slightly inside)
. .................................................................................. 6
3 (2). The upper margin of the four anterior eyes forms a recurved line. Eyes of the second row located very much inside 
the anterior laterals.  2. BOETHEAE 400 (cf  Spartaeus  [Boethus = Spartaeus, Portia ] 
- The upper margin of the four anterior eyes forms a procurved line. Eyes of the second row hardly at all  located inside the
 anterior laterals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................................. . 4 
4 (2). Sternum strongly attenuated in front, and the coxae of ■he first pair of legs separated by a distance much
 narrower than the labium. Posterior spinnerets often with a long apical segment. 4. COCALEAE 405 ( cf  Cocalus  [Cocalus, 
Phaeacius]  
- Sternum hardly at all attenuate in front and broadly truncate, coxae of the first pair of legs separated by a distance much wider than the labium. Posterior spinnerets with a short apical segment..........................................5
5 (5). Labium and endites much longer than wide. Legs long and slender, without fringes.. 3.COCALODEAE 403 (cf Cocalodes [Cocalodes ] - Labium hardly longer than wide. Endites rather short and wide. Tibiae rather robust with long ample fringes, metatarsi abruptly more slender than the tibiae and very long...... 5. LINEAE 4O8 (cf Portia [Linus=Portia] )
6 (2). Sternum short or moderately long, the coxae of each side contiguous. The abdomen in front covering the pedicel and the margin of the cephalothorax . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................................................... . . 7 - Sternum long, coxae of the second pair of legs separated from the coxae of the third pair on each side. The pedicel, or at least the margin of the cephalothorax, not covered by the abdomen (ant-like salticids). . ... . . 20 7 (6). Cephalothorax high, posterior eyes usually prominent . . . . . . . . . ............... . . . . . . . . . . . 8
- Cephalothorax low and flat above, as in Marpissa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................... . . . . . . . . 15
8 (7). Anterior metatarsi with two long spines beneath near the base . . . ..................... . . . . . . . . . 9
- Anterior metatarsi with at least 2-2 spines beneath. . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................... . . . . . . . . . 10
9 (8). Pars cephalica flat and with parallel sides. Ocular quadrangle much wider than long and shorter than the pars thoracica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12. CYRBEAE 447 (cf Cyrba ) [Cyrba] - Pars cephalica deeply excised on each side. Ocular quadrangle at least not wider than long and a little longer than the strongly sloping pars thoracica.......... . 9. TOMOCYRBEAE 440 (cf Tomocyrba [Tomocyrba]
10 (8). Third pair of legs much longer than the fourth pair, all legs with many spines. Anterior eyes in a recurved line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AMYCIEAE 413 (cf Amycus ) [ Amycus, Maenola, Acragas, Hypaeus, Noegus, Mago, Encolpius, Helpidius=Cobanus, Bindax, Amphidraus, Letoia]
- Fourth pair of legs much longer than the third pair . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................... . . . . . . . . . 11
11 (10). Anterior eye row procurved. Metatarsi much longer than tibiae.
. 6CODETEAE 411 (cf Gelotia ) [Codeta=Gelotia, Policha=Gelotia, Gelotia] - Anterior eye row recurved or rarely straight. Metatarsi (at least the anteriors) shorter than the tibiae or at least not longer.12 12 (11). Trochanter of the first pair of legs very long and cylindrical, the tibia more or less inflated. Pars thoracica lower than the pars cephalica and without a thoracic groove. 8. DIOLENIEAE 476 (cf Diolenius) [Diolenius, Discocnemius=Ligonipes, Lystrocteisa, Chalcolecta, Tarodes] - Trochanter of the first pair of legs short, normal, tibia not inflated . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
13 (12). Pars thoracica impressed with a deep thoracic groove. . 8. ASTIEAE 429 (cf Astia) [Lagnus, Astia, Helpis, Arasia, Titananus, Anaurus, Agelista, Lapsias, Charippus] - Thoracic groove very minute or absent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ...... . 14
14 (13). Small eyes of the second row located far in front of the midpoint (i.e. closer to the anterior laterals than the posterior laterals). Tibiae of the second pair of legs with a double row of spines beneath . 10. SCOPOCIREAE 442 (cf Scopocira ) [Scopocira, Gypogyna, Cyllodania]
-Small eyes of the second row midway between the anterior and posterior laterals or slightly closer to the posterior laterals. Tibiae of the second pair of legs armed beneath with a single row of three spines. 11. ROGMOCRYPTEAE 445 (cf Rogmocrypta ) [Rogmocrypta]
15 (7). Anterior tarsi and metatarsi unarmed. Posterior tibiae and metatarsi with spines. . . 16
- Anterior tarsi and metatarsi strongly spined beneath in two rows. Posterior tarsi and especially the metatarsi very sparingly spined or unarmed . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ................................................................. . .17
16 (15). Pars cephalica long, more or less constricted on each side behind the lateral eyes. Eyes of the second row very minute, located much closer to the anterior laterals than to the posterior laterals .13. HISPONEAE 449 (cf Hispo ) [Hispo, Astaenorchetes=Hispo, Massagiris]-Pars cephalica short, with parallel sides not constricted behind the eyes. Eyes of the second row remarkably large . . .. 14. HOLCOLAETEAE 452 (cf Holcolaetis ) [Holcolaetis]
17 (15). Tibiae of the first pair of legs armed beneath with four, more rarely two, setae which are bulbous at the base. . . . . . . . ..... 15. THIODINEAE 454 Thiodina [Thiodina, Nilacantha=Nilakantha, Ceriomura, Cotinusa]
[Attention: Simon 1901a list Cotinusa as Pluridentati (pages 456-468) and Gophoa as Unidentati) (p.588-589) (synonymyzed by Galiano 1963b: 360)] - Tibiae lacking setae which are bulbous at the base. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
18 (17). Area of the dorsal eyes with parallel sides or slightly narrower behind than in front, and shorter than the pars thoracica with the exception of Baviola). Pars thoracica impressed with a longitudinal sulcus. Abdomen narrow and long, and rounded in front. . ........................................................................................................ . 19
- Area of the dorsal eyes wider behind than in front, and longer (or at least not shorter) than the pars thoracica. Cephalothorax above without tubercles or impressions. Abdomen in front broadly truncated and covering the pars thoracica ...................... . 19. BALLEAE 481 (cf Ballus ) [Ballus, Peplometus, Pachyballus, Cylistella, Porius] 19 (18). Labium much longer than wide. Spinnerets apical . . 16. BAVIEAE 460 (cf Bavia) [Bavia, Padillothorax=Stagetillus, Cynapes, Psecas, Epinga=Psecas, Baviola, Padilla, Goleta, Stagetillus, Stenodeza, Piranthus] - Labium not longer than wide. Spinnerets not apical, but situated beneath the abdomen and hidden by it from above. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. COPOCROSSEAE 473 (cf Copocrossa) [Copocrossa, Mantisatta, Ligdus]
20 (7). Tibiae of the first pair of legs strongly dilated and compressed .. . . . . . . . . . . 21 - Tibiae of the first pair of legs slender and cylindrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. . 22
21 (21). Anterior tibia and patella convex and rounded above, armed below, among the spines, with a long, thick fringe. Anterior eyes large, contiguous, but very much unequal to one another 20. LIGONIPEDEAE 487 (cf Ligonipes ) [Marengo, Colaxes, Philates=Marengo, Haterius, Ligonipes] - Anterior tibia and patella angular, flattened above and on both sides, not fringed below. Anterior eyes of moderate size, and distinctly separated from one another. 21 and [71] 69. PECKHAMIEAE 494, 868 (cf Peckhamia ) [Consingis, Peckhamia] 22 (20). Sternum strongly attenuated in front, virtually pointed, and the coxae
of the first pair of legs very close together. The upper margin of the anterior eyes form a slightly procurved, or rarely straight, line. 22. MYRMARACHNEAE 496 (cf Myrmarachne ) [Panachraesta, Emertonius=? Myrmarachne, , Bocus, Bizone=Bizonella=Myrmarachne]
- Sternum hardly at all attenuated in front, but truncate, and the coxae of the first pair of legs separated from one another. Upper margin of the anterior eyes usually form a recurved line ................................................. 23
23 (22). Anterior metatarsi with 3-3 spines beneath. 25. SOBASINEAE 512 (cf Sobasina ) [Sobasina, Fluda, Keyserlingella=Fluda] - Anterior metatarsi with 2-2 spines beneath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... . . . . . . 24
24 (24). Cephalothorax strongly constricted in the middle, abruptly narrowed behind and slightly produced. Upper margin of the anterior eyes form a very strongly recurved line. Anterior tarsi slender . 24. SYNEMOSYNEAE 508 (cf Synemosyna) [Simonella=Synemosyna, Synemosyna] - Cephalothorax with virtually parallel sides, not constricted, slightly attenuated behind, and plainly truncate. Upper margin of\ anterior eyes form a slightly recurved line. Anterior tarsi long, slightly spindle-shaped... 23. SARINDEAE 505 (cf Sarinda ) [Sarinda, Erica]
 II. SALTICIDAE UNIDENTATI  (516-519)  
II/1. Posterior margin of the cephalothorax  and the pedicel visible from above. Coxae of the second pair of  legs separated  
from the coxae of the third pair of legs. The fourth pair of legs with the coxae  not shorter than the trochanter, or at least not
 much shorter. . . ................................................................................................. ...................  2
 - Posterior margin of the cephalothorax and the pedicel invisible from above,  covered by the abdomen. All coxae on both 
sides contiguous . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................................................ . . 5
 
 II/2(1). Trochanter and patella of the first pair of legs remarkably long, the tibia  curved and much shorter than the patella, 
the metatarsus very minute.. . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. AGORIEAE 534 (cf   Agorius ) [Agorius] 
- First pair of legs normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ . . . 3 
 
 II/3(2). Pars cephalica higher than the pars thoracica. Sternum truncate in front,  not attenuated, anterior ae separated from 
one another more widely, or at least  not more narrowly, than the rest of the coxae. Inferior margin of the chelicerae  with a 
single tooth. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26. ZUNIGEAE 519 (cf   Zuniga ) [Zuniga, Cineas=Sarinda,  Simprulla] 
 - Pars cephalica not higher than pars thoracica. Sternum attenuated in front and  the coxae of the first pair of legs close 
together. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................................................... . 4 
 
 II/4(3). Inferior margin of the chelicerae without any tooth. Anterior tibiae slender  and cylindrical. . 
...................27. LEPTORCHESTEAE 523 (cf  Leptorchestes) [Leptorchestes, Araegeus, Kima, Leptorchestes, Quekettia]
 - Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a single tooth. First pair of legs robust,  femur clavate and tibia ovate. . . . . . . . 
 . . 28. SYNAGELEAE 526 (cf  Synageles )  [Synageles, Semora, Semorina, Descanso, Chirothecia, Sebastira,  Bellota, Osericta,
 Damoetas, Mexcala] 
 
 II/5. Inferior margin of the chelicerae without a tooth or with only a very minute  and fine tooth ....6 
 - Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a strong conical tooth. . . . . . . .  . . . . ................... . .... . . 9 
 
 II/6(1). Third pair of legs much longer than the fourth pair of legs . . . . . .  . . . . . . ......... . . . . . 7
 - Third pair of legs much shorter than the fourth pair of legs . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .................. . . . . . 8
 
 II/7(6). Pars cephalica strongly tuberculate near the eyes, depressed on each side  between the eyes■ Sternum wide, hardly at
 all attenuate in front, and broadly  truncate, the coxae of the first pair of legs widely separated. ...  45a ZENODOREAE 648
 (cf  Zenodorus ) [Pystira,  Zenodorus, Mollica=Mollika, Margaromma, Corythalia, Stoidis]
 - Pars cephalica flat, not impressed on the sides. Sternum strongly attenuated  in front, and the coxae of the first pair of legs 
close together.  45b AELURILLEAE 658 (cf  Aelurillus ) [Aelurillus, Langona, Stenaelurillus, Saitidops, Habrocestum, Phlegra, 
Pellenes, Neaetha, Mogrus]  
 
 II/8(6). Pars thoracica impressed with a thoracic groove behind the eyes. Legs with  numerous strong spines . 
........36. SITTICEAE 577 (cf  Sitticus  ) [Sitticus, Attulus, Yllenus, Tomis] 
 - Pars thoracica without a thoracic groove. Legs weakly and sparingly spined. . 35. CHALCOSCIRTEAE 572
 (cf Chalcoscirtus) [Chalcoscirtus, Semiopyla, Jollas, Neon  ] 
 
 II/9 (5). Tibia and patella of the third pair of legs longer (or at least not shorter)  than the tibia and patella of the fourth pair of 
legs. . . . . . . . . . . ................................................................................................................ .  . 10 
 -Tibia and patella of the third pair of legs shorter than the tibia and patella of the fourth pair of legs17 
 
 II/10 (9). Ocular quadrangle wider behind than in front. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . ....................... . . . 11 
 - Ocular quadrangle with parallel sides or often narrower behind than in front  . . ................. . . . 13
 
 II/11 (10). Ocular quadrangle trapezoidal and rather small, much narrower behind than  the cephalothorax. Small eyes of the 
second row located much closer to the anterior  laterals than to the posterior laterals. Posterior legs rather sparsely spined.
...... 49. THYENEAE 682 (cf   Thyene ) [Thyene, Thyenula, Mopsus] 
 - Ocular quadrangle large. Small eyes of the second row not much closer to the  anterior laterals. Posterior legs with numerous
 strong spines. . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............................................................................. 12
 
 II/12 (11). Ocular quadrangle narrower than the cephalothorax behind. Pars cephalica  tuberculate on each side and 
depressed between the eyes. Sternum strongly attenuate  in front.. 50. HYLLEAE (in part) 688 (cf  Hyllus ) [Sandalodes, 
 Gangus, Hyllus, Philaeus, Phiale, (many species = Nycerella and Frigga), Carrhotus,  Eugasmia, Hypoblemum, Diagondas, Evarcha, 
Pachypoessa, Brancus]
 - Ocular quadrangle not narrower than the cephalothorax behind. Pars cephalica  wide and neither tuberculate nor depressed. 
Sternum strongly attenuate in front..  46. BYTHOCROTEAE (in part) (cf   Bythocrotus ) [Bythocrotus] 671 
 
 II/13 (10). Labium not longer than its width at the base. Sternum short, not attenuated  in front, and broadly truncate. 
. 33. SAITEAE 558   Saitis ) [Saitis, Jotus=Lycidas, Salpesia, Ilargus, Maeota,  Pochyta, Luuharulla, Oningis, Hypoblemum] 
 - Labium distinctly longer than wide. Sternum more or less attenuated in front.  . . .................. . 14 
 II/14 (13). Ocular quadrangle much narrower behind than in front and the small eyes  of the second row located much closer
 to the anterior laterals than to the posterior  laterals . 52. VICIRIEAE 741   Viciria type sp.) [Vinnius, Viciria (=Telemonia s.str.),
 Erasinus,  Asaracus, Poessa, Chira (= ?Shira), Alcimonotus] 
 - Ocular quadrangle not narrower behind than in front (or at least not very much  narrower). Small eyes of the second row 
midway between the anterior and posterior  laterals (or at least not appreciably closer to the anterior laterals). 15 
 
 II/15 (14). Pars cephalica neither tuberculate nor impressed. Sternum strongly anenuated  in front...46. BYTHOCROTEAE  
(in part) (cf  Bythocrotus ) 671 [Bythocrotus]
 - Pars cephalica more or less tuberculate, depressed on both sides between the  eyes. Sternum only moderately attenuated in 
front. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . ................................................................................. . . . . 16 
 
 II/16 (15). Ocular quadrangle with virtually parallel sides. Posterior eyes of moderate  size, separated from the small eyes of 
the second row by more than the width of  one posterior eye. Small eyes of the second row perhaps a little closer to the 
 anterior laterals.. 50. HYLLEAE (in part) 688 (cf  Hyllus )  [Sandalodes, Gangus, Hyllus, Philaeus, Phiale, (many species = 
 Nycerella and Frigga), Carrhotus, Eugasmia, Hypoblemum, Diagondas, Evarcha, Pachypoessa,  Brancus] 
 - Ocular quadrangle a little narrower behind than in front. Posterior eyes large, separated from the small eyes of the second
 row by less than the width of the  posterior eye (or at least not more). Small eyes midway between the anterior and  posterior
 laterals or perhaps slightly closer to the posteriors.. .51. PLEXIPPEAE 710   Plexippus) [Penionomus,  Sigytes, Plexippus,
 Palpelius, Artabrus, Pharacocerus, Pseudamycus, Malloneta,  Collytus, Dasycyptus, Phaulostylus, Colopsus=Evarcha, Pancorius, 
Theratoscirtus=Thiratoscirtus,  Alfenus, Anarrhotus, Freya, Pochyta, Eustiromastix, Capidava, Bathippus]  
 
 II/17(9). Small eyes of the second row much further from the posterior laterals than from the anterior ..18
- Small eyes of the second row midway (or nearly) between the anterior and posterior  laterals.... 24 
 II/18 (17). Ocular quadrangle much wider behind than in front . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . ........ . . . 19 
 - Ocular quadrangle with virtually parallel sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . ........................ . . 21 
 II/19 (18). Posterior legs with numerous strong spines. Pars thoracica marked  with a short oval thoracic groove distinctly
 behind the eyes (except Atelurius).. 37. HURIEAE 583   Hurius) [Hurius, Scoturis, Atelurius] 
 - Posterior legs with only a few minute spines, usually unarmed, except for the  metatarsi and the apical whorls of spines 20 
 
 II/20 (19). Pars thoracica longer than the pars cephalica, and marked by a thoracic  groove behind the eyes . 
............42. DENDRYPHANTEAE  (in part) 612  Dendryphantes ) [Pseudicius,  Icius, Modunda, Admestina, Anoka=Hentzia,
 Bagheera, Avitus, Dendryphantes, Lurio,  Sassacus, Thammaca, Paradamoetas, Tulpius, Ashtabula] 
- Cephalothorax very wide. Pars thoracica shorter than the pars cephalica or at  least not longer, either without a thoracic 
groove, or a with a very minute, hardly  visible one between the eyes . 43. RHENEAE 633  Rhene)[Alcmena, Bianor, Rhene, 
Dryphias, Partona, Napoca, Agassa,  Homalattus, Zeuxippus] 
 
 II/21 (18). Cephalothorax cylindrical, abruptly sloping behind, with the upper  margin of the declivity carinate or prominent.
 That is, the cephalothorax is truncate  behind with the posterior face vertical and concave. Anterior eyes in a slightly 
procurved line. All legs with the femora wide and strongly compressed, and the  rest of the segments slender and cylindrical..
.....  44. COCCORCHESTEAE 647   Coccorchestes ) [Coccorchestes, Omoedus, Poecilorchestes]  
- Cephalothorax normal, gradually sloping behind. Anterior legs more robust than  the others ..... 22 
 
 II/22 (21). Sternum strongly attenuated in front, almost as much as in Marpissa. Ocular quadrangle with parallel sides. . . . . . 
. . 42.  DENDRYPHANTEAE (in part) 612  Dendryphantes) [Pseudicius, Icius, Modunda, Admestina, Anoka=Hentzia, Bagheera,  
Avitus, Dendryphantes, Lurio, Sassacus, Thammaca, Paradamoetas, Tulpius, Ashtabula]  
 - Sternum hardly at all attenuated in front and widely truncate between the anterior  coxae. Ocular quadrangle slightly narrower
 behind than in front . . . . . . .  . . . . . ................................................................................. . . . 23
 
 II/23 (22). Anterior eyes in a recurved line. Fourth pair of legs unarmed, long, with the trochanters hardly shorter than the 
coxae. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . 30. ITATEAE 537  Itata)  [ Itata]
 Anterior eyes in a straight or very slightly procurved line. Fourth pair of legs  normal, with few minute spines . . . .
39. GOPHOEAE 588 Cotinusa )[Gophoa=Cotinusa] [Attention: Simon 1901a list  Cotinusa as Pluridentati (pages 456-468) and Gophoa as Unidentati) (p.588-589) (synonymyzed by Galiano 1963b: 360)] 
 II/24 (17). Sternum strongly attenuated in front and the coxae of the first pair of legs subcontiguous .. 25
 Sternum not attenuated in front and widely truncate between the anterior coxae  . . ................ . . 26 
 
 II/25 (24). Thoracic groove rather long, situated a little behind the posterior  eyes. Anterior legs usually strongly spined. 
Posterior metatarsi longer than the  tarsi.. 40. MARPISSEAE 590  Marpissa ) [Salticus,  Cerionesta, Helvetia, Deloripa,
 Festucula, Breda Holoplatys, Ocriosiona, Hyctia=Marpissa,  Corambis, Naubolus, Mithion, Marpissa, Muziris, Menemerus, Clynotis, Dexippus]  
 - Thoracic groove small, very far behind the posterior eyes (near the summit of  the declivity). All legs virtually unarmed.
 Posterior metatarsi shorter than the  tarsi..  32. FLACILLEAE 556  Flacillula ) [Flacilla=Flacillula]  
 
 II/26 (24). Posterior legs with numerous strong spines. Thoracic groove very minute,  hardly discernible . .....................
..................34. EUOPHRYDEAE 568  Euophrys) [Akela, Euophrys, Rhyphelia] 
 - Posterior legs with a few minute spines. Thoracic groove rather long, situated  a little behind the eyes . 27
 
 II/27 (26). Cephalothorax high, almost as in Viciria. Inferior margin of  the chelicerae oblique and not lobed, armed with 
a strongly pointed, triangular tooth rather far from the base of the fang.  31. CHRYSILLEAE 539 Chrysilla ) [Telamonia 
(Telemonia s.stricto = Simon's  Viciria (part.), now mainly Phintella), Rhondes, Phintia=Phintodes=Tylogonus,  Chrysilla, Cosmophasis, Orsima, 
Tutelina, Cyllobelus, Echinussa, Epocilla, Heliophanus,  Iona, Ceglusa] 
 - Cephalothorax low, almost as in Marpissa. Inferior margin of the chelicerae  short, lobed near the base of the fang, with 
a strong conical tooth close to the  lobe.. 38. THIANIEAE 586  Thiania ) [Thiania,  Thianitara] 
III  SALTICIDAE FISSIDENTATI  (756-758)  
III/1. Sternum strongly attenuated  in front and the coxae of the first pair of legs very close together. Posterior  legs (usually)
 unarmed or very sparsely spined. Fourth pair of legs much longer  than the third pair. . . .  . . . . . 2 
- Sternum very little attenuated in front, broadly truncate  and the coxae of the first pair of legs separated by a space at least as
 wide  as the labium . . ...................................................................................................... . . . . 4. 
III/2 (1). Cephalothorax short and broad, the pars  thoracica shorter than the ocular quadrangle, or at least not longer, without 
 thoracic groove (with the exception of Siloca). Ocular quadrangle much wider behind  than in front, and the small eyes of the 
second row far closer to the anterior  laterals than the posteriors.. [63a)58. SIMAETHEAE 830  (Simaetha)[Beata, Simaetha,
 Ligurra, Stertinius,  Heratemis= Heratemita, Irura, Simaethula, Phyaces, Uroballus, Stergusa] 
- Cephalothorax low and long, the pars thoracica much longer than the ocular quadrangle,  and with a thoracic groove. Ocular
 quadrangle with parallel sides or slightly  narrower behind than in front. Small eyes of the second row not very much closer 
 to the anterior laterals than the posteriors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 
III/3 (2). Cephalothorax very  low, not depressed behind the eyes, pars thoracica more than twice as long as  the pars
cephalica, with a very minute punctiform thoracic groove, about midway  between the posterior eyes and the posterior margin 
of the cephalothorax. Ocular  quadrangle with parallel sides. Small eyes of the second row midway between the  anterior and 
posterior laterals. Posterior legs completely unarmed 64. ..RUDREAE 850  Rudra ) [Rudra] 
- Cephalothorax rather low, with a transverse depression behind the eyes and a thoracic groove. Posterior legs with few minute 
spines.. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . [63b]59. MAEVIEAE 844 (cf Maevia (Maevia, Empanda) 

III/4 (1). Ocular quadrangle very large, longer than the pars thoracica or  at least not shorter . ... . 5 
- Ocular quadrangle wider than long, and shorter than the pars thoracica. . ...............  . . . . . . . . . 7 
III/5 (4). Small eyes of the second row midway between the anterior    and posterior laterals or occasionally behind the 
midpoint. Anterior legs with    the femur broadly clavate and the tibia very broad, disciform, and strongly  fringed.. . . . .
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [70)68.    HARMOCHIREAE 866 (cf. Harmochirus ) [Harmochirus] 
 - Small eyes of the second row far closer to the anterior laterals than to the posteriors. Anterior legs not fringed .. 6 
III/6 (5). Cephalothorax short, ocular quadrangle very large, much longer than the short and sloping pars thoracica. Anterior
 legs with broadly    clavate femur, the other segments slender and cylindrical . 67. ZYGOBALLEAE 863 (cf. Zygoballus) 
[Zygoballus, Rhetenor] 
- Cephalothorax long and ovate, pars thoracica roughly equal in length to the ocular quadrangle. Anterior legs with the femur
 clavate, the patella and tibia thick and slightly angled..  21 and [71)69. PECKHAMIEAE 494, 868 (cf. Peckhamia )
 [Consingis, Peckhamia]    
III/7 (4). Thoracic groove lacking . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . .................. . . 8 
   - Thoracic groove present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . , ........................... . . . 9 
III/8 (8). Cephalothorax short and high. Ocular quadrangle much    wider than long. Small eyes of the second row midway
 between the anterior and    posterior laterals. Posterior legs with minute but numerous spines . . 67. BELLIENEAE 856 
(cf. Belliena ) [Belliena, Nagaina] 
   - Cephalothorax long and with virtually parallel sides. Small eyes of the second    row much closer to the anterior laterals than the posteriors. Posterior legs    unarmed or nearly so. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . . . . 68. HYETUSSEAE 859 (cf. Hyetussa ) [Hyetussa, Tanybelus,    Atomosphyrus] 
III/9 (7). Anterior eyes in a strongly recurved, semicircular line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ . . 10 
   - Anterior eyes in a straight or only slightly recurved line. . . . . . . .    . . . . . . . . . ................... .12 
III/10 (9). Cephalothorax high but flat above and abruptly sloping    behind, so that the posterior face is nearly vertical. 
Ocular quadrangle with parallel sides. Posterior legs very sparely and minutely spined .  54. HERMOTIMEAE 760 
(cf. Hermotimus) [Hermotimus] 
 - Cephalothorax extremely high, strongly sloping both in front and behind, ocular quadrangle much narrower behind than 
in front. Posterior legs usually with strong numerous spines ....................................................... 11 
III/11 (10). Anterior lateral eyes situated behind the anterior  medians almost as in Lyssomanes. Labium wider than long. 
The four posterior legs similar to one another in length.. 53. ATHAMEAE 758 (cf. Athamas ) [Athamas]    
   - Anterior lateral eyes normal. Labium much longer than wide. Third pair of legs much longer than the fourth pair. . . . . 
. . . . . . 55. SPILARGEAE 762 (cf. Spilargis ) [Spilargis, Thorellia=Thorelliola, Eupalia=Eupalina] 
III/12 (9). Posterior legs with numerous strong spines . . .    . . . . . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 
   - Posterior legs (at least the metatarsi of the fourth leg) sparsely and weakly spined, sometimes unarmed. 17
III/13 (12). Inferior margin of the chelicerae with a small carina with three or four serrations.  57. EMATHIDEAE 804
 Emathis ) [Gedea, Pristobaeus, Emathis, Lepidemathis, Lophostica, Pseudemathis] 
 - Inferior margin of the chelicerae with an emarginate or bifid carina . . .    . ................. . . . . . . . 14 
III/14 (13). Posterior eyes small. Eyes of the second row distinctly closer to the anterior than the posterior laterals, separated 
from the posterior eyes by much more than an eye width. Anterior eyes form a rather recurved line   59. SERVAEAE 804
 Servaea ) [ Servaea ]    
- Posterior eyes large. Small eyes of the second row midway between the anterior and posterior laterals, separated from the 
posterior eyes by no more than an eye width . . . . .................................................................... 15 
III/15 (14). Labium wider than long, semicircular. Sternum broadly heart-shaped, no longer than wide. .............................
............... . 60. MICROHASARIEAE 820 (cf. Microhasarius )[Microhasarius] 
- Labium much longer than wide. Sternum ovate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . . ..................... . . . . . . 16 
III/16 (15). Superior margin of the chelicerae bidentate . 56. HASARIEAE 768 Hasarius ) [Hasarius, Epidelaxia, Viroqua,
 Phausina, Semnolius, Encymachus, Nannenus, Uxuma, Curubis, Nebridia, Longarenus, Tarne, Mopiopia, Marma,
 Donoessus, Chalcotropis, Coryphasia, Ocnotelus, Commoris, Tariona, Tylogonus, Asaphobelis, Ptocasius, Tusitala, 
Ergane, Mantius, Panysinus, Sidusa, Chloridusa, Siloca, Chapoda] 
- Superior margin of the chelicerae with 3 or 4 teeth  . 58. CYTEAE 810 Cytaea ) [Cytaea, Ascyltus, Canama, Euryattus, 
Plotius] 
III/17 (12). Ocular quadrangle not much wider than long and a little wider behind than in front. Posterior tibiae and metatarsi 
with minute, weak, but numerous spines. Anterior legs (at least of the male) with long fringes. 65.  SILEREAE 852
 (cf. Siler ) [Siler] 
- Ocular quadrangle much wider than long and with parallel sides. Posterior legs (at least the metatarsi of the fourth pair)
 virtually unarmed. Anterior legs without fringe. ......................................................................... 18    
III/18 (17). Cephalothorax short, the pars thoracica not longer than the ocular quadrangle, the thoracic groove small, pit like, 
deep, and oval, about halfway between the posterior eyes and the rear margin of the cephalothorax. The trochanters of the 
anterior legs remarkably long.. . 66. PILIEAE 854 (cf. Pilia ) [Pilia, Tara] 
- Cephalothorax longer, the pars thoracica longer than the ocular quadrangle, the thoracic groove behind the eyes, but forward
 of the midpoint between the posterior eyes and the rear margin of the cephalothorax. Anterior legs normal  19 
III/19 (18). Small eyes of the second row about midway between the anterior and posterior lateral eyes .61. LAUFEIEAE 
...822 (cf. Laufeia ) [Pselcis, Laufeia] 
- Small eyes of the second row closer to the anterior laterals than the posterior laterals. .62. TRITEAE 825 (cf. Trite ) [Trite,
 Opisthoncus]